Glossary

Abiotic

Nonliving. Compare biotic.

Acid deposition

A complex chemical and atmospheric process whereby recombined emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds are redeposited on earth in wet or dry form. See acid rain.

Acid rain

Rainwater that has an acidity content greater than the postulated natural pH of about 5.6. It is formed when sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides, as gases or fine particles in the atmosphere, combine with water vapor and precipitate as sulfuric acid or nitric acid in rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates. See acid deposition, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides.

Acid Solution

Any water solution that has more hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxide ions (OH-); any water solution with a pH less than 7. See basic solution.

Acidic

See acid solution.

Adiabatic Process

A thermodynamic change of state of a system such that no heat or mass is transferred across the boundaries of the system. In an adiabatic process, expansion always results in cooling, and compression in warming.

Aerobic

A life or process that occurs in and is dependent upon oxygen. See methanotrophic, anaerobic.

Aerosol

Particulate matter, solid or liquid, larger than a molecule but small enough to remain suspended in the atmosphere. Natural sources include salt particles from sea spray, dust and clay particles as a result of weathering of rocks, both of which are carried upward by the wind. Aerosols can also originate as a result of human activities and are often considered pollutants. Aerosols are important in the atmosphere as nuclei for the condensation of water droplets and ice crystals, as participants in various chemical cycles, and as absorbers and scatters of solar radiation, thereby influencing the radiation budget of the Earth's climate system. See climate, particulate matter, sulfate aerosols.

Afforestations

Planting of new forests on lands that have not been recently forested.

Air carrier

An operator (e.g., airline) in the commercial system of air transportation consisting of aircraft that hold certificates of, Public Convenience and Necessity,

Air pollution

One or more chemicals or substances in high enough concentrations in the air to harm humans, other animals, vegetation, or materials. Such chemicals or physical conditions (such as excess heat or noise) are called air pollutants.

Alkalinity

Having the properties of a base with a pH of more than 7. A common alkaline is baking soda.

Alternative energy

Energy derived from nontraditional sources (e.g., compressed natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, wind).

Anaerobic

A life or process that occurs in, or is not destroyed by, the absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic decomposition

The breakdown of molecules into simpler molecules or atoms by microorganisms that can survive in the partial or complete absence of oxygen.

Anaerobic lagoon

A liquid-based manure management system, characterized by waste residing in water to a depth of at least six feet for a period ranging between 30 and 200 days. Bacteria produce methane in the absence of oxygen while breaking down waste.

Anaerobic organism

An organism that does not need oxygen to stay alive. See anaerobic.

Antarctic "Ozone Hole"

Refers to the seasonal depletion of stratospheric ozone in a large area over Antarctica. See ozone, ozone layer.

Anthracite

A hard, black, lustrous coal containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Often referred to as hard coal. See coal.

Anthropogenic

Human made. In the context of greenhouse gases, emissions that are produced as the result of human activities.

Arable land

Land that can be cultivated to grow crops.

Aromatic

Applied to a group of hydrocarbons and their derivatives characterized by the presence of the benzene ring.

Ash

The mineral content of a product remaining after complete combustion.

Asphalt

A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumen as the predominant constituent. It is obtained by petroleum processing. The definition includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalt.

Atmosphere

The mixture of gases surrounding the Earth. The Earth's atmosphere consists of about 79.1% nitrogen (by volume), 20.9% oxygen, 0.036% carbon dioxide and trace amounts of other gases. The atmosphere can be divided into a number of layers according to its mixing or chemical characteristics, generally determined by its thermal properties (temperature). The layer nearest the Earth is the troposphere, which reaches up to an altitude of about 8 km (about 5 miles) in the polar regions and up to 17 km (nearly 11 miles) above the equator. The stratosphere, which reaches to an altitude of about 50 km (31 miles) lies atop the troposphere. The mesosphere which extends up to 80-90 km is atop the stratosphere, and finally, the thermosphere, or ionosphere, gradually diminishes and forms a fuzzy border with outer space. There is relatively little mixing of gases between layers.

Atmospheric lifetime

See lifetime.

Atomic weight

The average weight (or mass) of all the isotopes of an element, as determined from the proportions in which they are present in a given element, compared with the mass of the 12 isotope of carbon (taken as precisely 12.000), that is the official international standard; measured in daltons.

Atoms

Minute particles that are the basic building blocks of all chemical elements and thus all matter.

Aviation gasoline

All special grades of gasoline for use in aviation reciprocating engines, as given in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification D 910. Includes all refinery products within the gasoline range that are to be marketed straight or in blends as aviation gasoline without further processing (any refinery operation except mechanical blending). Also included are finished components in the gasoline range, which will be used for blending or compounding into aviation gasoline.

Bacteria

One-celled organisms. Many act as decomposers that break down dead organic matter into substances that dissolve in water and are used as nutrients by plants.

Barrel

A liquid-volume measure equal to 42 United States gallons at 60 degrees Fahrenheit; used in expressing quantities of petroleum-based products.

Baseline Emissions

The emissions that would occur without policy intervention (in a business-as-usual scenario). Baseline estimates are needed to determine the effectiveness of emissions reduction programs (often called mitigation strategies).

Basic solution

Water solution with more hydroxide ions (OH-) than hydrogen ions (H+); water solutions with pH greater than 7. See acid solution, alkalinity.

Biodegradable

Material that can be broken down into simpler substances (elements and compounds) by bacteria or other decomposers. Paper and most organic wastes such as animal manure are biodegradable. See nonbiodegradable.

Biofuel

Gas or liquid fuel made from plant material (biomass). Includes wood, wood waste, wood liquors, peat, railroad ties, wood sludge, spent sulfite liquors.

Biogeochemical Cycle

Natural processes that recycle nutrients in various chemical forms from the environment, to organisms, and then back to the environment. Examples are the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and hydrologic cycles.

Biogenic

Produced or brought about by living organisms. E.g. "biogenic sediments".

Biological oxygen demand

Amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down the organic materials in a given volume of water at a certain temperature over a specified time period. See BOD5.

Biomass

Total dry weight of all living organisms that can be supported at each tropic level in a food chain. Also, materials that are biological in origin, including organic material (both living and dead) from above and below ground, for example, trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, roots, and animals and animal waste.

Biomass energy

Energy produced by combusting biomass materials such as wood. The carbon dioxide emitted from burning biomass will not increase total atmospheric carbon dioxide if this consumption is done on a sustainable basis (i.e., if in a given period of time, regrowth of biomass takes up as much carbon dioxide as is released from biomass combustion). Biomass energy is often suggested as a replacement for fossil fuel combustion. See biomass.

Biosphere

The living and dead organisms found near the earth's surface in parts of the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. The part of the global carbon cycle that includes living organisms and biogenic organic matter.

Biotic

Living. Living organisms make up the biotic parts of ecosystems. See abiotic.

Bitumen

Gooey, black, high-sulfur, heavy oil extracted from tar sand and then upgraded to synthetic fuel oil. See tar sand.

Bituminous coal

A dense, black, soft coal, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material. The most common coal, with moisture content usually less than 20 percent. Used for generating electricity, making coke, and space heating. See coal.

BOD5

The biochemical oxygen demand of wastewater during decomposition occurring over a 5-day period. A measure of the organic content of wastewater. See biological oxygen demand.

British thermal unit

The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree of Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit.

Bunker fuel

Fuel supplied to ships and aircraft for international transportation, irrespective of the flag of the carrier, consisting primarily of residual and distillate fuel oil for ships and jet fuel for aircraft.

Bus

A rubber-tired, self-propelled, manually steered vehicle that is generally designed to transport 30 individuals or more. Bus types include intercity, school and transit.

Carbon dioxide

A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil fuel combustion. Although carbon dioxide does not directly impair human health, it is a greenhouse gas that traps terrestrial (i.e., infrared) radiation and contributes to the potential for global warming. See global warming.

Carbon dioxide equivalent

A metric measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential (GWP). Carbon dioxide equivalents are commonly expressed as "million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCDE)." The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the tons of the gas by the associated GWP. (MMTCDE = (million metric tons of a gas) * (GWP of the gas))

Carbon Equivalent

A metric measure used to compare the emissions of different greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential (GWP). Greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. are most commonly expressed as "million metric tons of carbon equivalents" (MMTCE). Global warming potentials are used to convert greenhouse gases to carbon dioxide equivalents - they can be converted to carbon equivalents by multiplying by 12/44 (the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon to carbon dioxide). The forumula for carbon equivalents is: MMTCE = (million metric tons of a gas) * (GWP of the gas) * (12/44)

Carbon intensity

The relative amount of carbon emitted per unit of energy or fuels consumed. See energy, energy-efficiency.

Carbon pool

The reservoir containing carbon as a principal element in the geochemical cycle.

Carbon sequestration

The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned. See carbon sinks, fossil fuel.

Carbon sinks

Carbon reservoirs and conditions that take-in and store more carbon (i.e., carbon sequestration) than they release. Carbon sinks can serve to partially offset greenhouse gas emissions. Forests and oceans are large carbon sinks. See carbon sequestration.

Carbon tetrachloride

A compound consisting of one carbon atom and four chlorine atoms. It is an ozone depleting substance. Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a raw material in many industrial applications, including the production of chlorofluorocarbons, and as a solvent. Solvent use was ended in the United States when it was discovered to be carcinogenic. See ozone depleting substance.

Chemical reaction

Interaction between chemicals in which there is a change in the chemical composition of the elements or compounds involved.

Chlorofluorocarbons

Organic compounds made up of atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. An example is CFC-12 (CCl2F2, used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners and as a foam blowing agent. Gaseous CFCs can deplete the ozone layer when they slowly rise into the stratosphere, are broken down by strong ultraviolet radiation, release chlorine atoms, and then react with ozone molecules. See ozone depleting substance, fluorocarbons.

Climate

The average weather, usually taken over a 30 year time period, for a particular region and time period. Climate is not the same as weather, but rather, it is the average pattern of weather for a particular region. Weather describes the short-term state of the atmosphere. Climatic elements include precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost, and hail-storms, and other measures of the weather. See weather.

Climate change

The term "climate change" is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but because the Earth's climate is never static, the term is more properly used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In some cases, climate change has been used synonymously with the term, global warming; scientists however, tend to use the term in the wider sense to also include natural changes in climate. See climate, global warming, greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, radiative forcing.

Climate feedback

An atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, or other process that is activated by direct climate change induced by changes in radiative forcing. Climate feedbacks may increase (positive feedback) or diminish (negative feedback) the magnitude of the direct climate change. See climate, climate change, radiative forcing.

Climate lag

The delay that occurs in climate change as a result of some factor that changes only very slowly. For example, the effects of releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere may not be known for some time because a large fraction is dissolved in the ocean and only released to the atmosphere many years later. See climate, climate change.

Climate model

A quantitative way of representing the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. Models can range from relatively simple to quite comprehensive. See General Circulation Model.

Climate modeling

The simulation of the climate using computer-based models. See climate model, General Circulation Model.

Climate sensitivity

The equilibrium response of the climate to a change in radiative forcing, for example, a doubling of the carbon dioxide concentration. See climate, radiative forcing.

Climate system (or Earth system)

The atmosphere, the oceans, the biosphere, the cryosphere, and the geosphere, together make up the climate system.

Coal

A black or brownish black solid, combustible substance formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable matter without access to air. The rank of coal, which includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, is based on fixed carbon, volatile matter, and heating value. Coal rank indicates the progressive alteration, or coalification, from lignite to anthracite. See anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, lignite.

Coal coke

A hard, porous product made from baking bituminous coal in ovens at temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit. It is used both as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

Coal gasification

Conversion of solid coal to synthetic natural gas (SNG) or a gaseous mixture that can be burned as a fuel.

Coal liquefaction

Conversion of solid coal to a liquid fuel such as synthetic crude oil or methanol.

Coalbed methane

Methane that is produced from coalbeds in the same manner as natural gas produced from other strata. Methane is the principal component of natural gas.

Co-control benefit

The additional benefit derived from an environmental policy that is designed to control one type of pollution, while reducing the emissions of other pollutants as well. For example, a policy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions might reduce the combustion of coal, but when coal combustion is reduced, so too are the emissions of particulates and sulfur dioxide. The benefits associated with reductions in emissions of particulates and sulfur dioxide are the co-control benefits of reductions in carbon dioxide.

Cogeneration

Production of two useful forms of energy such as high-temperature heat and electricity from the same process. For example, while boiling water to generate electricity, the leftover steam can be sold for industrial processes or space heating.

Combustion

Chemical oxidation accompanied by the generation of light and heat.

Commercial sector

An area consisting of non-housing units such as non-manufacturing business establishments (e.g., wholesale and retail businesses), health and educational institutions, and government offices.

Compost

Partially decomposed organic plant and animal matter that can be used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer. See decomposition.

Composting

Partial breakdown of organic plant and animal matter by aerobic bacteria to produce a material that can be used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer. See compost.

Compound

Combination of two or more different chemical elements held together by chemical bonds. See element, inorganic compound, organic compound.

Concentration

Amount of a chemical in a particular volume or weight of air, water, soil, or other medium. See parts per billion, parts per million. See parts per billion, parts per million.

Conifer

See coniferous trees.

Coniferous trees

Cone-bearing trees, mostly evergreens, that have needle-shaped or scale-like leaves. They produce wood known commercially as softwood. See deciduous trees.

Criteria pollutant

A pollutant determined to be hazardous to human health and regulated under EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act require EPA to describe the health and welfare impacts of a pollutant as the "criteria" for inclusion in the regulatory regime. Emissions of the criteria pollutants CO, NOx, NMVOCs, and SO2.

Crop residue

Organic residue remaining after the harvesting and processing of a crop.

Crop rotation

Planting the same field or areas of fields with different crops from year to year to reduce depletion of soil nutrients. A plant such as corn, tobacco, or cotton, which remove large amounts of nitrogen from the soil, is planted one year. The next year a legume such as soybeans, which add nitrogen to the soil, is planted.

Crude oil

A mixture of hydrocarbons that exist in liquid phase in underground reservoirs and remain liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. See petroleum.

Deciduous trees

Trees such as oaks and maples that lose their leaves during part of the year. See coniferous trees.

Decomposition

The breakdown of matter by bacteria and fungi. It changes the chemical composition and physical appearance of the materials. See composting.

Deforestation

Those practices or processes that result in the change of forested lands to non-forest uses. This is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect for two reasons: 1) the burning or decomposition of the wood releases carbon dioxide; and 2) trees that once removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the process of photosynthesis are no longer present and contributing to carbon storage.

Degradable

See biodegradable.

Desertification

The progressive destruction or degradation of existing vegetative cover to form desert. This can occur due to overgrazing, deforestation, drought, and the burning of extensive areas. Once formed, deserts can only support a sparse range of vegetation. Climatic effects associated with this phenomenon include increased albedo, reduced atmospheric humidity, and greater atmospheric dust (aerosol) loading.

Distillate fuel oil

A general classification for the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. Included are products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils and No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuels. Used primarily for space heating, on and off-highway diesel engine fuel (including railroad engine fuel and fuel for agricultural machinery), and electric power generation.

eCO2

CO2 Equivalents. A metric measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential (GWP). Carbon dioxide equivalents are commonly expressed as "metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MTCDE)." The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the tons of the gas by the associated GWP. (MTCDE = (million metric tons of a gas) * (GWP of the gas))

Ecosystem

The complex system of plant, animal, fungal, and microorganism communities and their associated non-living environment interacting as an ecological unit. Ecosystems have no fixed boundaries; instead their parameters are set to the scientific, management, or policy question being examined. Depending upon the purpose of analysis, a single lake, a watershed, or an entire region could be considered an ecosystem.

Electrons

Tiny particle moving around outside the nucleus of an atom. Each electron has one unit of negative charge (-) and almost no mass.

Element

Chemicals such as hydrogen (H), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), or oxygen (O), whose distinctly different atoms serve as the basic building blocks of all matter. There are 92 naturally occurring elements. Another 15 have been made in laboratories. Two or more elements combine to form compounds that make up most of the world's matter. See compound.

Emission inventory

A list of air pollutants emitted into a community's, state's, nation's, or the Earth's atmosphere in amounts per some unit time (e.g. day or year) by type of source. An emission inventory has both political and scientific applications.

Emissions

The release of a substance (usually a gas when referring to the subject of climate change) into the atmosphere.

Emissions coefficient/factor

A unique value for scaling emissions to activity data in terms of a standard rate of emissions per unit of activity (e.g., grams of carbon dioxide emitted per barrel of fossil fuel consumed).

Endemic

Species characteristic of or prevalent in a particular or restricted locality or region.

Energy

The capacity for doing work as measured by the capability of doing work (potential energy) or the conversion of this capability to motion (kinetic energy). Energy has several forms, some of which are easily convertible and can be changed to another form useful for work. Most of the world's convertible energy comes from fossil fuels that are burned to produce heat that is then used as a transfer medium to mechanical or other means in order to accomplish tasks. In the United States, electrical energy is often measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while heat energy is often measured in British thermal units (Btu).

Energy conservation

Reduction or elimination of unnecessary energy use and waste. See energy-efficiency.

Energy intensity

Ratio between the consumption of energy to a given quantity of output; usually refers to the amount of primary or final energy consumed per unit of gross domestic product.

Energy quality

Ability of a form of energy to do useful work. High-temperature heat and the chemical energy in fossil fuels and nuclear fuels are concentrated high quality energy. Low-quality energy such as low-temperature heat is dispersed or diluted and cannot do much useful work.

Energy-efficiency

The ratio of the useful output of services from an article of industrial equipment to the energy use by such an article; for example, vehicle miles traveled per gallon of fuel (mpg).

Enhanced greenhouse effect

The concept that the natural greenhouse effect has been enhanced by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, CFCs, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, NF3 and other photochemically important gases caused by human activities such as fossil fuel consumption, trap more infra-red radiation, thereby exerting a warming influence on the climate. See greenhouse gas, anthropogenic, greenhouse effect, climate, global warming.

Enhanced oil recovery

Removal of some of the heavy oil left in an oil well after primary and secondary recovery. See primary oil recovery, secondary oil recovery.

Enteric fermentation

A digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by microorganisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of an animal.

Environment

All external conditions that affect an organism or other specified system during its lifetime.

Ethanol (C2H5OH)

Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol, alcohol, or grain spirit. A clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78.5 degrees Celsius in the anhydrous state. In transportation, ethanol is used as a vehicle fuel by itself (E100), blended with gasoline (E85), or as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (10 percent concentration).

Evapotranspiration

The loss of water from the soil by evaporation and by transpiration from the plants growing in the soil, which rises with air temperature.

Exponential growth

Growth in which some quantity, such as population size, increases by a constant percentage of the whole during each year or other time period; when the increase in quantity over time is plotted, this type of growth yields a curve shaped like the letter J.

Feedback Mechanisms

A mechanism that connects one aspect of a system to another. The connection can be either amplifying (positive feedback) or moderating (negative feedback). See climate feedback.

Feedlot

Confined outdoor or indoor space used to raise hundreds to thousands of domesticated livestock. See rangeland.

Fertilization

A term used to denote efforts to enhance plant growth by increased application of nitrogen-based fertilizer or increased deposition of nitrates in precipitation.

Fertilization, Carbon Dioxide

An expression (sometimes reduced to fertilization) used to denote increased plant growth due to a higher carbon dioxide concentration.

Fertilizer

Substance that adds inorganic or organic plant nutrients to soil and improves its ability to grow crops, trees, or other vegetation. See organic fertilizer, fertilization.

Flaring

The burning of waste gases through a flare stack or other device before releasing them to the air.

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC)

Process for burning coal more efficiently, cleanly, and cheaply. A stream of hot air is used to suspend a mixture of powdered coal and limestone during combustion. About 90 to 98 percent of the sulfur dioxide produced during combustion is removed by reaction with limestone to produce solid calcium sulfate.

Fluorocarbons

Carbon-fluorine compounds that often contain other elements such as hydrogen, chlorine, or bromine. Common fluorocarbons include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). See chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, ozone depleting substance.

Forcing Mechanism

A process that alters the energy balance of the climate system, i.e. changes the relative balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation from Earth. Such mechanisms include changes in solar irradiance, volcanic eruptions, and enhancement of the natural greenhouse effect by emission of carbon dioxide. See radiation, infrared radiation, radiative forcing.

Forest

Terrestrial ecosystem (biome) with enough average annual precipitation (at least 76 centimeters or 30 inches) to support growth of various species of trees and smaller forms of vegetation.

Fossil fuel

A general term for buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years. See coal, petroleum, crude oil, natural gas.

Fossil fuel combustion

Burning of coal, oil (including gasoline), or natural gas. This burning, usually to generate energy, releases carbon dioxide, as well as combustion by products that can include unburned hydrocarbons, methane, and carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide, methane, and many of the unburned hydrocarbons slowly oxidize into carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Common sources of fossil fuel combustion include cars and electric utilities.

Freon

See chlorofluorocarbons.

Fugitive emissions

Unintended gas leaks from the processing, transmission, and/or transportation of fossil fuels, CFCs from refrigeration leaks, SF6 from electrical power distributor, etc.

Full time equivalency (FTEs)

A full-time equivalent (FTE) measure attempts to standardize a student’s actual course load against the normal course load. Calculating the full-time/part-time status requires information on the time periods for actual and normal course loads. For the reduction of head-count data to FTEs, where data and norms on individual participation are available, course load is measured as the product of the fraction of the normal course load for a full-time student and the fraction of the school/academic year.

[FTE = (actual course load/normal course load) * (actual duration of study during reference period/normal duration of study during reference period).]

When actual course load information is not available, a full-time student is considered equal to one FTE.

Gasohol

Vehicle fuel consisting of a mixture of gasoline and ethyl or methyl alcohol; typically 10 to 23 percent ethanol by volume.

General Aviation

That portion of civil aviation, which encompasses all facets of aviation except air carriers. It includes any air taxis, commuter air carriers, and air travel clubs, which do not hold Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity. See air carrier.

General Circulation Model (GCM)

A global, three-dimensional computer model of the climate system which can be used to simulate human-induced climate change. GCMs are highly complex and they represent the effects of such factors as reflective and absorptive properties of atmospheric water vapor, greenhouse gas concentrations, clouds, annual and daily solar heating, ocean temperatures and ice boundaries. The most recent GCMs include global representations of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surface. See climate modeling.

Geosphere

The soils, sediments, and rock layers of the Earth's crust, both continental and beneath the ocean floors.

Geothermal energy

Heat transferred from the earth's molten core to under-ground deposits of dry steam (steam with no water droplets), wet steam (a mixture of steam and water droplets), hot water, or rocks lying fairly close to the earth's surface.

Global warming

The progressive gradual rise of the earth's surface temperature thought to be caused by the greenhouse effect and responsible for changes in global climate patterns. An increase in the near surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is most often used to refer to the warming predicted to occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases. See climate change, greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, radiative forcing.

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

The index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years).

Grassland

Terrestrial ecosystem (biome) found in regions where moderate annual average precipitation (25 to 76 centimeters or 10 to 30 inches) is enough to support the growth of grass and small plants but not enough to support large stands of trees.

Greenhouse effect

The effect produced as greenhouse gases allow incoming solar radiation to pass through the Earth's atmosphere, but prevent part of the outgoing infrared radiation from the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere from escaping into outer space. This process occurs naturally and has kept the Earth's temperature about 59 degrees F warmer than it would otherwise be. Current life on Earth could not be sustained without the natural greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse Gas

Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), perfluorinated carbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). See carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, ozone, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride.

Halocarbons

Chemicals consisting of carbon, sometimes hydrogen, and either chlorine, fluorine bromine or iodine.

Halons

Compounds, also known as bromofluorocarbons, that contain bromine, fluorine, and carbon. They are generally used as fire extinguishing agents and cause ozone depletion. Bromine is many times more effective at destroying stratospheric ozone than chlorine. See ozone depleting substance.

Heat

Form of kinetic energy that flows from one body to another when there is a temperature difference between the two bodies. Heat always flows spontaneously from a hot sample of matter to a colder sample of matter. This is one way to state the second law of thermodynamics. See temperature.

Heat content

The amount of heat per unit mass released upon complete combustion.

Higher heating value

Quantity of heat liberated by the complete combustion of a unit volume or weight of a fuel assuming that the produced water vapor is completely condensed and the heat is recovered; also known as gross calorific value. See lower heating value.

Histosol

Wet organic soils, such as peats and mucks.

Hydrocarbons

Substances containing only hydrogen and carbon. Fossil fuels are made up of hydrocarbons. Some hydrocarbon compounds are major air pollutants. Seefossil fuel.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

Compounds containing hydrogen, fluorine, chlorine, and carbon atoms. Although ozone depleting substances, they are less potent at destroying stratospheric ozone than chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). They have been introduced as temporary replacements for CFCs and are also greenhouse gases. See ozone depleting substance.

Hydroelectric power plant

Structure in which the energy of fading or flowing water spins a turbine generator to produce electricity.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Compounds containing only hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon atoms. They were introduced as alternatives to ozone depleting substances in serving many industrial, commercial, and personal needs. HFCs are emitted as by-products of industrial processes and are also used in manufacturing. They do not significantly deplete the stratospheric ozone layer, but they are powerful greenhouse gases with global warming potentials ranging from 140 (HFC-152a) to 11,700 (HFC-23).

Hydrologic cycle

The process of evaporation, vertical and horizontal transport of vapor, condensation, precipitation, and the flow of water from continents to oceans. It is a major factor in determining climate through its influence on surface vegetation, the clouds, snow and ice, and soil moisture. The hydrologic cycle is responsible for 25 to 30 percent of the mid-latitudes' heat transport from the equatorial to polar regions.

Hydropower

Electrical energy produced by falling or flowing water. See hydroelectric power plant.

Hydrosphere

The part of the Earth composed of water including clouds, oceans, seas, ice caps, glaciers, lakes, rivers, underground water supplies, and atmospheric water vapor.

Industrial sector

Construction, manufacturing, agricultural and mining establishments.

Infrared radiation

The heat energy that is emitted from all solids, liquids, and gases. In the context of the greenhouse issue, the term refers to the heat energy emitted by the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. Greenhouse gases strongly absorb this radiation in the Earth's atmosphere, and radiate some back towards the surface, creating the greenhouse effect. See radiation, greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming.

Inorganic compound

Combination of two or more elements other than those used to form organic compounds. See organic compound.

Inorganic fertilizer

See synthetic fertilizer.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The IPCC was established jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization in 1988. The purpose of the IPCC is to assess information in the scientific and technical literature related to all significant components of the issue of climate change. The IPCC draws upon hundreds of the world's expert scientists as authors and thousands as expert reviewers. Leading experts on climate change and environmental, social, and economic sciences from some 60 nations have helped the IPCC to prepare periodic assessments of the scientific underpinnings for understanding global climate change and its consequences. With its capacity for reporting on climate change, its consequences, and the viability of adaptation and mitigation measures, the IPCC is also looked to as the official advisory body to the world's governments on the state of the science of the climate change issue. For example, the IPCC organized the development of internationally accepted methods for conducting national greenhouse gas emission inventories.

Irreversibilities

Changes that, once set in motion, cannot be reversed, at least on human time scales.

Jet fuel

Includes both naphtha-type and kerosene-type fuels meeting standards for use in aircraft turbine engines. Although most jet fuel is used in aircraft, some is used for other purposes such as generating electricity.

Joule

The energy required to push with a force of one Newton for one meter.

Kerogen

Solid, waxy mixture of rock is heated to high temperatures, the kerogen is vaporized. The vapor is condensed and then sent to a refinery to produce gasoline, heating oil, and other products. See oil shale, shale oil.

Kerosene

A petroleum distillate that has a maximum distillation temperature of 401 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point, a final boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit, and a minimum flash point of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Used in space heaters, cookstoves, and water heaters, and suitable for use as an illuminant when burned in wick lamps.

Landfill

Land waste disposal site in which waste is generally spread in thin layers, compacted, and covered with a fresh layer of soil each day.

Lifetime (Atmospheric)

The lifetime of a greenhouse gas refers to the approximate amount of time it would take for the anthropogenic increment to an atmospheric pollutant concentration to return to its natural level (assuming emissions cease) as a result of either being converted to another chemical compound or being taken out of the atmosphere via a sink. This time depends on the pollutant's sources and sinks as well as its reactivity. The lifetime of a pollutant is often considered in conjunction with the mixing of pollutants in the atmosphere; a long lifetime will allow the pollutant to mix throughout the atmosphere. Average lifetimes can vary from about a week (sulfate aerosols) to more than a century (CFCs, carbon dioxide). See residence time, greenhouse gas.

Light-duty vehicles

Automobiles and light trucks combined.

Lignite

A brownish-black coal of low rank with high inherent moisture and volatile matter content, used almost exclusively for electric power generation. Also referred to as brown coal. See coal.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Natural gas converted to liquid form by cooling to a very low temperature.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, and isobutane produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate new natural gas plant liquids.

Litter

Undecomposed plant residues on the soil surface. See decomposition.

Longwave radiation

The radiation emitted in the spectral wavelength greater than 4 micrometers corresponding to the radiation emitted from the Earth and atmosphere. It is sometimes referred to as terrestrial radiation or infrared radiation, although somewhat imprecisely. See infrared radiation.

Low Emission Vehicle (LEV)

A vehicle meeting the low-emission vehicle standards.

Lower heating value

Quantity of heat liberated by the complete combustion of a unit volume or weight of a fuel assuming that the produced water remains as a vapor and the heat of the vapor is not recovered; also known as net calorific value. See higher heating value.

Lubricant

A substance used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces or as a process material, either incorporated into other materials used as aids in manufacturing processes or as carriers of other materials. Petroleum lubricants may be produced either from distillates or residues. Other substances may be added to impart or improve useful properties. Does not include by-products of lubricating oil from solvent extraction or tars derived from de-asphalting. Lubricants include all grades of lubricating oils from spindle oil to cylinder oil and those used in greases. Lubricant categories are paraffinic and naphthenic.

Manure

Dung and urine of animals that can be used as a form of organic fertilizer. See fertilizer, organic fertilizer.

Mass balance

The application of the principle of the conservation of matter.

Mauna Loa

An intermittently active volcano (elevation: 13,680 feet; 4,170 meters) on the island of Hawaii.

Meteorology

The science of weather-related phenomena. See weather, climate.

Methane (CH4)

A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 21. Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills, animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of natural gas and petroleum, coal production, and incomplete fossil fuel combustion. The atmospheric concentration of methane as been shown to be increasing at a rate of about 0.6 percent per year and the concentration of about 1.7 per million by volume (ppmv) is more than twice its pre-industrial value. However, the rate of increase of methane in the atmosphere may be stabilizing.

Methanol (CH33OH)

A colorless poisonous liquid with essentially no odor and little taste. It is the simplest alcohol with a boiling point of 64.7 degrees Celsius. In transportation, methanol is used as a vehicle fuel by itself (M100), or blended with gasoline (M85).

Methanotrophic

Having the biological capacity to oxidize methane to CO2 and water by metabolism under aerobic conditions. See aerobic.

Methyl bromide (CH3Br)

An effective pesticide; used to fumigate soil and many agricultural products. Because it contains bromine, it depletes stratospheric ozone when released to the atmosphere. See ozone depleting substance.

Metric Ton

Common international measurement for the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions. A metric ton is equal to 2205 lbs or 1.1 short tons. See short ton.

Mineral

Any naturally occurring inorganic substance found in the earth's crust as a crystalline solid.

MMBtu

One Million Btus. A Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree of Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit.

Model year

Refers to the "sales" model year; for example, vehicles sold during the period from October 1 to the next September 31 is considered one model year.

Molecule

Chemical combination of two or more atoms of the same chemical element (such as O2) or different chemical elements (such as H2O).

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

The Montreal Protocol and its amendments control the phaseout of ozone depleting substances production and use. Under the Protocol, several international organizations report on the science of ozone depletion, implement projects to help move away from ozone depleting substances, and provide a forum for policy discussions. In the United States, the Protocol is implemented under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. See ozone depleting substance, ozone layer.

Motor gasoline

A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons, with or without small quantities of additives, obtained by blending appropriate refinery streams to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline includes both leaded and unleaded grades of finished gasoline, blending components, and gasohol. See hydrocarbons.

MTCDE 

Metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent

Municipal solid waste (MSW)

Residential solid waste and some non-hazardous commercial, institutional, and industrial wastes. This material is generally sent to municipal landfills for disposal. See landfill.

N (other) - also see Other N

"Other N’ includes N emissions not part of the NOx or N2O nitrogen emissions factors. ‘Other N’ includes N species not accounted for elsewhere (e.g., NH3), and also includes some N2O and NOx. Please note there is no double-counting because sectors with the ‘other N’ emissions factor do not have NOx or N2O emissions factors. Other N is in units of kg N/resource consumed. The sectors that have ‘Other N’ emissions factors are fertilizer, food, wastewater, and the compost offset. We use ‘Other N’ emissions factors because of how the N losses for these sectors are calculated.

Naphtha

A generic term applied to a petroleum fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122 and 400 degrees Fahrenheit.

Natural gas

Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50 to 90 percent methane (CH4) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).

Natural gas liquids (NGLs)

Those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated as liquids from the gas. Includes natural gas plant liquids and lease condensate.

Nitrogen cycle

Cyclic movement of nitrogen in different chemical forms from the environment, to organisms, and then back to the environment.

Nitrogen fixation

Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas into forms useful to plants and other organisms by lightning, bacteria, and blue-green algae; it is part of the nitrogen cycle.

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Gases consisting of one molecule of nitrogen and varying numbers of oxygen molecules. Nitrogen oxides are produced, for example, by the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles and electric power plants. In the atmosphere, nitrogen oxides can contribute to formation of photochemical ozone (smog), impair visibility, and have health consequences; they are considered pollutants.

Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

A powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently evaluated at 310. Major sources of nitrous oxide include soil cultivation practices, especially the use of commercial and organic fertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production, and biomass burning.

Nonbiodegradable

Substance that cannot be broken down in the environment by natural processess. See biodegradable.

Nonlinearities

Occur when changes in one variable cause a more than proportionate impact on another variable.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs)

Organic compounds, other than methane, that participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions.

Non-point source

Large land area such as crop fields and urban areas that discharge pollutant into surface and underground water over a large area. See point source.

Nuclear electric power

Electricity generated by an electric power plant whose turbines are driven by steam generated in a reactor by heat from the fissioning of nuclear fuel. See nuclear energy.

Nuclear energy

Energy released when atomic nuclei undergo a nuclear reaction such as the spontaneous emission of radioactivity, nuclear fission, or nuclear fusion.

Oil

See crude oil, petroleum, fossil fuel, hydrocarbons.

Oil shale

Underground formation of a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing varying amounts of kerogen, a solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. Heating the rock to high temperatures converts the kerogen to a vapor, which can be condensed to form a slow flowing heavy oil called shale oil. See kerogen, shale oil.

Ore

Mineral deposit containing a high enough concentration of at least one metallic element to permit the metal to be extracted and sold at a profit.

Organic compound

Molecule that contains atoms of the element carbon, usually combined with itself and with atoms of one or more other element such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or fluorine. See inorganic compound.

Organic fertilizer

Organic material such as manure or compost, applied to cropland as a source of plant nutrients.

Other N - also see N (other)

"Other N’ includes N emissions not part of the NOx or N2O nitrogen emissions factors. ‘Other N’ includes N species not accounted for elsewhere (e.g., NH3), and also includes some N2O and NOx. Please note there is no double-counting because sectors with the ‘other N’ emissions factor do not have NOx or N2O emissions factors. Other N is in units of kg N/resource consumed. The sectors that have ‘Other N’ emissions factors are fertilizer, food, wastewater, and the compost offset. We use ‘Other N’ emissions factors because of how the N losses for these sectors are calculated.

Oxidize

To chemically transform a substance by combining it with oxygen. See chemical reaction.

Oxygen cycle

Cyclic movement of oxygen in different chemical forms from the environment, to organisms, and then back to the environment.

Ozone (O3)

A colorless gas with a pungent odor, having the molecular form of O3 , found in two layers of the atmosphere, the stratosphere (about 90% of the total atmospheric loading) and the troposphere (about 10%). Ozone is a form of oxygen found naturally in the stratosphere that provides a protective layer shielding the Earth from ultraviolet radiation's harmful health effects on humans and the environment. In the troposphere, ozone is a chemical oxidant and major component of photochemical smog. Ozone can seriously affect the human respiratory system. See atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation.

Ozone depleting substance (ODS)

A family of man-made compounds that includes, but are not limited to, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), bromofluorocarbons (halons), methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). These compounds have been shown to deplete stratospheric ozone, and therefore are typically referred to as ODSs. See ozone.

Ozone layer

The layer of gaseous ozone (O3) in the stratosphere that protects life on earth by filtering out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. See stratosphere, ultraviolet radiation.

Ozone precursors

Chemical compounds, such as carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, which in the presence of solar radiation react with other chemical compounds to form ozone, mainly in the troposphere. See troposphere.

Particulate matter (PM)

Solid particles or liquid droplets suspended or carried in the air (e.g., soot, dust, fumes, mist). See aerosol, sulfate aerosols.

Particulates

See particulate matter.

Parts per billion (ppb)

Number of parts of a chemical found in one billion parts of a particular gas, liquid, or solid mixture. See concentration.

Parts per million (ppm)

Number of parts of a chemical found in one million parts of a particular gas, liquid, or solid. See concentration.

Pentanes plus

A mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and heavier fractions, extracted from natural gas. See hydrocarbons.

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

A group of human-made chemicals composed of carbon and fluorine only. These chemicals (predominantly CF4 and C2F6) were introduced as alternatives, along with hydrofluorocarbons, to the ozone depleting substances. In addition, PFCs are emitted as by-products of industrial processes and are also used in manufacturing. PFCs do not harm the stratospheric ozone layer, but they are powerful greenhouse gases: CF4 has a global warming potential (GWP) of 6,500 and C2F6 has a GWP of 9,200. See ozone depleting substance.

Petrochemical feedstock

Feedstock derived from petroleum, used principally for the manufacture of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a variety of plastics. The categories reported are naphtha (endpoint less than 401 degrees Fahrenheit) and other oils (endpoint equal to or greater than 401 degrees Fahrenheit).

Petrochemicals

Chemicals obtained by refining (i.e., distilling) crude oil. They are used as raw materials in the manufacture of most industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, medicines, and many other products. See crude oil.

Petroleum

A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and non-hydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products. See crude oil.

Petroleum coke

A residue that is the final product of the condensation process in cracking.

Photosynthesis

Complex process that takes place in living green plant cells. Radiant energy from the sun is used to combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to produce oxygen (O2) and simple nutrient molecules, such as glucose (C6H12O6). See carbon sequestration.

Photovoltaic and solar thermal energy

Energy radiated by the sun as electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic radiation) that is converted into electricity by means of solar (i.e., photovoltaic) cells or useable heat by concentrating (i.e., focusing) collectors.

Point source

A single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment. Examples are smokestack, sewer, ditch, or pipe. See non-point source.

Pollution

A change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or soil that can affect the health, survival, or activities of humans in an unwanted way. Some expand the term to include harmful effects on all forms of life.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

A polymer of vinyl chloride. It is tasteless, odorless and insoluble in most organic solvents. A member of the family vinyl resin, used in soft flexible films for food packaging and in molded rigid products, such as pipes, fibers, upholstery, and bristles.

Population

Group of individual organisms of the same species living within a defined area.

Precession

The tendency of the Earth's axis to wobble in space over a period of 23,000 years. The Earth's precession is one of the factors that results in the planet receiving different amounts of solar energy over extended periods of time.

Prescribed burning

Deliberate setting and careful control of surface fires in forests to help prevent more destructive fires and to kill off unwanted plants that compete with commercial species for plant nutrients; may also be used on grasslands.

Primary oil recovery

Pumping out the crude oil that flows by gravity into the bottom of an oil well. See enhanced oil recovery, secondary oil recovery.

Quad

Quad stands for quadrillion, which is, 1015.

Radiation

Energy emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves. Radiation has differing characteristics depending upon the wavelength. Because the radiation from the Sun is relatively energetic, it has a short wavelength (ultra-violet, visible, and near infrared) while energy radiated from the Earth's surface and the atmosphere has a longer wavelength (e.g., infrared radiation) because the Earth is cooler than the Sun. See ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, solar radiation, longwave radiation, terrestrial radiation.

Radiative Forcing

A change in the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared radiation. Without any radiative forcing, solar radiation coming to the Earth would continue to be approximately equal to the infrared radiation emitted from the Earth. The addition of greenhouse gases traps an increased fraction of the infrared radiation, radiating it back toward the surface and creating a warming influence (i.e., positive radiative forcing because incoming solar radiation will exceed outgoing infrared radiation).

Rail

Includes "heavy" and "light" transit rail. Heavy transit rail is characterized by exclusive rights-of-way, multi-car trains, high speed rapid acceleration, sophisticated signaling, and high platform loading. Also known as subway, elevated railway, or metropolitan railway (metro). Light transit rail may be on exclusive or shared rights of way, high or low platform, multi-car trains or single cars, automated or manually operated. In generic usage, light rail includes streetcars, trolley cars, and tramways.

Rangeland

Land, mostly grasslands, whose plants can provide food (i.e., forage) for grazing or browsing animals. See feedlot.

Recycling

Collecting and reprocessing a resource so it can be used again. An example is collecting aluminum cans, melting them down, and using the aluminum to make new cans or other aluminum products.

Reforestation

Replanting of forests on lands that have recently been harvested.

Renewable energy

Energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible, unlike, for example, the fossil fuels, of which there is a finite supply. Renewable sources of energy include wood, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. See hydropower, photovoltaic.

Residence Time

The average time spent in a reservoir by an individual atom or molecule. With respect to greenhouse gases, residence time usually refers to how long a particular molecule remains in the atmosphere. See lifetime.

Residential sector

An area or portion consisting only of housing units.

Residual fuel oil

The heavier oils that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations and that conform to ASTM Specifications D396 and D975. Included are No. 5, a residual fuel oil of medium viscosity; Navy Special, for use in steam-powered vessels in government service and in shore power plants; and No. 6, which includes Bunker C fuel oil and is used for commercial and industrial heating, electricity generation, and to power ships. Imports of residual fuel oil include imported crude oil burned as fuel. See crude oil, hydrocarbons.

Respiration

The process by which animals use up stored foods (by combustion with oxygen) to produce energy.

Secondary oil recovery

Injection of water into an oil well after primary oil recovery to force out some of the remaining thicker crude oil. See enhanced oil recovery, primary oil recovery.

Sector

Division, most commonly used to denote type of energy consumer (e.g., residential) or according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the type of greenhouse gas emitter (e.g. industrial process). See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Septic tank

Underground tank for treatment of wastewater from a home in rural and suburban areas. Bacteria in the tank decompose organic wastes and the sludge settles to the bottom of the tank. The effluent flows out of the tank into the ground through a field of drainpipes.

Sewage treatment (primary)

Mechanical treatment of sewage in which large solids are filtered out by screens and suspended solids settle out as sludge in a sedimentation tank.

Shale oil

Slow-flowing, dark brown, heavy oil obtained when kerogen in oil shale is vaporized at high temperatures and then condensed. Shale oil can be refined to yield gasoline, heating oil, and other petroleum products. See kerogen, oil shale.

Short Ton

Common measurement for a ton in the United States. A short ton is equal to 2,000 lbs or 0.907 metric tons. See metric ton.

Sink

A reservoir that uptakes a chemical element or compound from another part of its cycle. For example, soil and trees tend to act as natural sinks for carbon.

Sludge

Gooey solid mixture of bacteria and virus laden organic matter, toxic metals, synthetic organic chemicals, and solid chemicals removed from wastewater at a sewage treatment plant.

Soil

Complex mixture of inorganic minerals (i.e., mostly clay, silt, and sand), decaying organic matter, water, air, and living organisms.

Soil carbon

A major component of the terrestrial biosphere pool in the carbon cycle. The amount of carbon in the soil is a function of the historical vegetative cover and productivity, which in turn is dependent in part upon climatic variables.

Solar energy

Direct radiant energy from the sun. It also includes indirect forms of energy such as wind, falling or flowing water (hydropower), ocean thermal gradients, and biomass, which are produced when direct solar energy interact with the earth. See solar radiation.

Solar Radiation

Energy from the Sun. Also referred to as short-wave radiation. Of importance to the climate system, solar radiation includes ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation, and infrared radiation. See ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, radiation.

Source

Any process or activity that releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol, or a precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. See point source, non-point source.

Special naphtha

All finished products within the naphtha boiling range that are used as paint thinners, cleaners, or solvents. Those products are refined to a specified flash point.

Still gas

Any form or mixture of gases produced in refineries by distillation, cracking, reforming, and other processes. Principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, propylene, etc. Used as a refinery fuel and as a petrochemical feedstock.

Stratosphere

Second layer of the atmosphere, extending from about 19 to 48 kilometers (12 to 30 miles) above the earth's surface. It contains small amounts of gaseous ozone (O3), which filters out about 99 percent of the incoming harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Most commercial airline flights operate at a cruising altitude in the lower stratosphere. See ozone layer, ultraviolet radiation.

Stratospheric ozone

See ozone layer.

Strip mining

Cutting deep trenches to remove minerals such as coal and phosphate found near the earth's surface in flat or rolling terrain. See surface mining.

Subbituminous coal

A dull, black coal of rank intermediate between lignite and bituminous coal. See coal.

Sulfate aerosols

Particulate matter that consists of compounds of sulfur formed by the interaction of sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide with other compounds in the atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols are injected into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels and the eruption of volcanoes like Mt. Pinatubo. Recent theory suggests that sulfate aerosols may lower the earth's temperature by reflecting away solar radiation (negative radiative forcing). General Circulation Models which incorporate the effects of sulfate aerosols more accurately predict global temperature variations. See particulate matter, aerosol, General Circulation Models.

Sulfur cycle

Cyclic movement of sulfur in different chemical forms from the environment, to organisms, and then back to the environment.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

A compound composed of one sulfur and two oxygen molecules. Sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere through natural and anthropogenic processes is changed in a complex series of chemical reactions in the atmosphere to sulfate aerosols. These aerosols are believed to result in negative radiative forcing (i.e., tending to cool the Earth's surface) and do result in acid deposition (e.g., acid rain). See aerosol, radiative forcing, acid deposition, acid rain.

Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)

A colorless gas soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble in water. A very powerful greenhouse gas used primarily in electrical transmission and distribution systems and as a dielectric in electronics. The global warming potential of SF6 is 23,900. See Global Warming Potential.

Surface mining

Removal of soil, sub-soil, and other strata and then extracting a mineral deposit found fairly close to the earth's surface. See strip mining.

Synthetic fertilizer

Commercially prepared mixtures of plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, and potassium applied to the soil to restore fertility and increase crop yields. See organic fertilizer.

Synthetic natural gas (SNG)

A manufactured product chemically similar in most respects to natural gas, resulting from the conversion or reforming of petroleum hydrocarbons. It may easily be substituted for, or interchanged with, pipeline quality natural gas.

Tailings

Rock and other waste materials removed as impurities when minerals are mined and mineral deposits are processed. These materials are usually dumped on the ground or into ponds.

Tar sand

Swamp-like deposit of a mixture of fine clay, sand, water, and variable amounts of tar-like heavy oil known as bitumen. Bitumen can be extracted from tar sand by heating. It can then be purified and upgraded to synthetic crude oil. See bitumen.

Temperature

Measure of the average speed of motion of the atoms or molecules in a substance or combination of substances at a given moment. See heat.

Term1

Test for Definition term 1

Term2

Test for definition term 2

Terrestrial

Pertaining to land.

Terrestrial radiation

The total infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere in the temperature range of approximately 200 to 300 Kelvin. Terrestrial radiation provides a major part of the potential energy changes necessary to drive the atmospheric wind system and is responsible for maintaining the surface air temperature within limits of livability.

Trace Gas

Any one of the less common gases found in the Earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen, oxygen, and argon make up more than 99 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. Other gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, and ammonia, are considered trace gases. Although relatively unimportant in terms of their absolute volume, they have significant effects on the Earth's weather and climate.

Transportation sector

Consists of private and public passenger and freight transportation, as well as government transportation, including military operations.

Troposphere

The lowest layer of the atmosphere and contains about 95 percent of the mass of air in the Earth's atmosphere. The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface up to about 10 to 15 kilometers. All weather processes take place in the troposphere. Ozone that is formed in the troposphere plays a significant role in both the greenhouse gas effect and urban smog. See ozone precursors, stratosphere, atmosphere.

Tropospheric ozone (O3)

See ozone.

Tropospheric ozone precursors

See ozone precursors.

Ultraviolet radiation (UV)

A portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths shorted than visible light. The sun produces UV, which is commonly split into three bands of decreasing wavelength. Shorter wavelength radiation has a greater potential to cause biological damage on living organisms. The longer wavelength ultraviolet band, UVA, is not absorbed by ozone in the atmosphere. UVB is mostly absorbed by ozone, although some reaches the Earth. The shortest wavelength band, UVC, is completely absorbed by ozone and normal oxygen in the atmosphere.

Unfinished oils

All oils requiring further refinery processing, except those requiring only mechanical blending. Includes naphtha and lighter oils, kerosene and light gas oils, heavy gas oils, and residuum.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)

The international treaty unveiled at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. The UNFCCC commits signatory countries to stabilize anthropogenic (i.e. human-induced) greenhouse gas emissions to "levels that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The UNFCCC also requires that all signatory parties develop and update national inventories of anthropogenic emissions of all greenhouse gases not otherwise controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Out of 155 countries that have ratified this accord, the United States was the first industrialized nation to do so. See Conference of the Parties, Berlin Mandate, Kyoto Protocol, Montreal Protocol.

Vehicle miles traveled (VMT)

One vehicle traveling the distance of one mile. Thus, total vehicle miles is the total mileage traveled by all vehicles.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

Organic compounds that evaporate readily into the atmosphere at normal temperatures. VOCs contribute significantly to photochemical smog production and certain health problems. See non-methane volatile organic compounds.

Wastewater

Water that has been used and contains dissolved or suspended waste materials. See sewage treatment.

Water Vapor

The most abundant greenhouse gas; it is the water present in the atmosphere in gaseous form. Water vapor is an important part of the natural greenhouse effect. While humans are not significantly increasing its concentration, it contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect because the warming influence of greenhouse gases leads to a positive water vapor feedback. In addition to its role as a natural greenhouse gas, water vapor plays an important role in regulating the temperature of the planet because clouds form when excess water vapor in the atmosphere condenses to form ice and water droplets and precipitation. See greenhouse gas.

Waxes

Solid or semisolid materials derived from petroleum distillates or residues. Light-colored, more or less translucent crystalline masses, slightly greasy to the touch, consisting of a mixture of solid hydrocarbons in which the paraffin series predominates. Included are all marketable waxes, whether crude scale or fully refined. Used primarily as industrial coating for surface protection.

Weather

Weather is the specific condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time. It is measured in terms of such things as wind, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and precipitation. In most places, weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day, and season-to-season. Climate is the average of weather over time and space. A simple way of remembering the difference is that climate is what you expect (e.g. cold winters) and 'weather' is what you get (e.g. a blizzard). See climate.

Weighted Campus Users

“Weighted campus user” is a measurement of an institution’s population that is adjusted to accommodate how intensively certain community members use the campus. This figure is used to normalize resource consumption and environmental impact figures in order to accommodate the varied impacts of different population groups. For example, an institution where a high percentage of students live on campus would witness higher greenhouse gas emissions, waste generation, and water consumption figures than otherwise comparable nonresidential institution since students’ residential impacts and consumption would be included in the institution’s totals. STARS calculates the figure according to the following formula. Please note that users will not have to calculate this figure themselves; the result will be calculated automatically when the data are entered into the online Reporting Tool.

Weighted campus users = (A + B + C) + 0.75 [ (D - A) + (E - B) – F ]

A= Number of students resident on-site

B= Number of employees resident on-site

C= Number of other individuals resident on-site and/or staffed hospital beds

D= Total full-time equivalent student enrollment

E= Full-time equivalent of employees (staff + faculty)

F= Full-time equivalent of students enrolled exclusively in distance education

Wetland

Land that stays flooded all or part of the year with fresh or salt water.

Wetlands

Areas regularly saturated by surface or groundwater and subsequently characterized by a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated-soil conditions.

Wood energy

Wood and wood products used as fuel, including roundwood (i.e., cordwood), limbwood, wood chips, bark, sawdust, forest residues, and charcoal.