Nitrogen References

Please note: These references apply to the 2017 and 2018 version of emission factors.

To see the most current references associated with the 2019 version of emission factors, see the following pages:


The references are organized by scope. We will be adding references for each section as they become available. If you see the hyperlink, then the references are ready.  If you have any questions about the references below or about any references not yet documented here, please contact us here

Scope 1:

Scope 2:

  • Utility consumption
  • Renewable energy

Scope 3:

Sinks and offsets:

  • Compost, non-additional sequestration, and offsets